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Media Theory Revision Guide

All A level theorists covered alongside revision summaries and exam practise exercises.




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Assassin's Creed

AC Regulation

Livingstone and Lunt

average rating is 4.2 out of 5, based on 9 votes, Exemplar ratings

Assassin's Creed exemplifies the industry friendly, consumer orientated, approach to video game regulation, whilst also highlighting the underlying problems that such an approach presents in terms of the ease with which vulnerable audiences can easily access problematic material. 

Ubisoft, like all of the console oriented software producers, self-certify content using the PEGI age rating system. The Assassin's Creed Liberation 18 rating is achieved as a result of its graphic depictions of violence, and, more importantly, as a result of gameplay in which innocent characters are killed. Both features are explicitly outlined by PEGI as suitable for 18+ players only. The scope of this problematic content is exemplified by the San Danje rescue mission where Aveline is required to kill unsuspecting guards in order to progress the narrative. 

Much like other UK-based regulatory bodies, the PEGI European gaming regulator seeks, principally, to protect vulnerable audiences and to advise parents of potentially problematic content. The ease with which such regulations can be sidestepped through the downloading of content online suggests the underlying problems of such an approach in the UK. 

UK research also suggests that users further bypass these restrictions by accessing pirated software or by asking older siblings to make game purchases. 

It is clear that a robust regulatory code exists - albeit one that seeks, principally, to protect vulnerable audiences, but as Livingstone and Lunt’s research suggests the effectiveness of that industry driven system is problematic.


The age-rating system that provides consumers with information about gaming content. The PEGI code tells parents whether games contain depictions of violence, swearing or gambling.

Media terminology used

Citizen based regulation

A regulatory system that outlines a civic role for the media, achieved by setting quotas for public service programming and by closely monitoring content so that it doesn't cause harm or offense.

Vulnerable audiences

Livingstone & Lunt suggest that the principle function of the independent bodies who regulate the UK's media is to protect children and other vulnerable groups from the effects of harmful content.

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