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Media Theory Revision Guide

All A level theorists covered alongside revision summaries and exam practise exercises.




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Fanfic demarginalises ethnicity in Humans


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Some fanfics also use textual poaching as a mechanism for identity play by  repositioning marginal characters at the centre of remimagings. 

‘Not Alone’, for example, rewrites Max as the main character - demarginalising a non-white representation in the original text. Similarly, ‘Freedom and Suffering’ rewrites Fred as a more significant character, again working against the whitecentric grain of the original narrative.

This sort of fan-based activity is clearly less visible than the activities promoted and sanctioned by the text’s creators as a means to distribute and promote the series. 

Yet, it’s existence provides some evidence to support Jenkin’s argument that fans are appropriating  media for identity play.

Textual poaching

The use of media products by audiences for purposes that weren't originally intended by their makers: YouTube remixes or fan parody videos, for example.

Media terminology used

Tokenistic representations

The inclusion of marginalised groups in products for the purposes of political correctness. Tokenistic characters are problematic because they often play secondary roles in narratives.

Participatory culture

The use of digital technologies by groups or individuals to create social change. The Harry Potter Alliance, for example, are an online community that promotes global social justice via online activism.

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