Media Theory Revision Guide

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All A level theorists covered alongside revision summaries and exam practise exercises.





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Daily Mirror

Reach PLC's economies of scale

Curran and Seaton

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Ownership of national titles like The Daily Star and The Daily Express also enables the paper to repurpose content for different audience segments: the Mirror catering for a C2DE male heavy readership, with the Express refashioning the same output for a more upmarket female audience. 

Reach PLCs ownership of national sister publications like the Daily express and the Daily star also enable the company to affect huge cost savings across the conglomerate. Reach Printing Services, for example, offers a centralised printing facility for the conglomerate’s papers - rationalising traditional news publications production costs, while ownership of the Reach Solutions subsidiary offers advertisers a comprehensive ad placement service that no single paper could afford to run by itself. 

The sharing of conglomerate assets, Curran and Seaton argue, enables contemporary news brands like the Mirror to provide services that a rival independent publication would struggle to reproduce. This generates significant entrance barriers to new providers who might want to enter the highly competitive UK newspaper market and explains why the number of available national titles is declining instead of increasing.

Horizontal integration

The ownership of subsidiaries that produce similar products or services. Reach PLC for instance is horizontally integrated through its ownership of the Mirror and the Star newspapers.

Media terminology used


A media market in which a small number of operators dominate. The UK national newspaper market for instance is comprised of just twelve national titles made by just five different media conglomerates.

Economies of scale

Achieved when two or more subsidiaries are owned by a media company - allowing conglomerates to make savings through bulk buying or by sharing resources. Reach PLC for instance uses one printing press to produce a number of different newspapers - saving Reach the expense of paying external printers to manufacture their titles.

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Media Theory for A Level
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