Media Theory Revision Guide

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All A level theorists covered alongside revision summaries and exam practise exercises.





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Kiss of the Vampire

Femme fatale stereotypes


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Stuart Hall argues that stereotypes are a primary means of reinforcing wider social power. The Kiss of the Vampire poster, likewise, deploy a number of gender-based stereotypes that arguably help to reinforce a passive and objectified representation of women - a representation that clearly prevents female social empowerment. 

The right-hand female figure is constructed as a femme fatale stereotype - the use of overly sexualised gesture codes, black hair, red lips and a commanding presence over a weak male counterpart would be instantly recognisable to the film poster’s contemporary audience. 

Despite the power of the femme fatale$ their presence in media texts conventionally signfifies a vilification of female power. Certainly, the KOTV female fatale’s contorted facial gestures and dominance combined to outline her as a negative role model for female audiences of the period.

Juxtaposed against this is a socially accepatble female ideal, constructed through the disempowering dumb blonde stereotype who willingly and passively submits to her male counterpart. The left hand positioning and the high key lighting combine to present this more submissive character as the privileged and ideologically acceptable role model from the female binary offered. 

Stereotype use of this sort, Hall argue, reflects the real-world powerlessness of women. They also affect what Hall calls ‘power circularity’ in that both female and male readers are led to internalise the gender model offered as a fixed or natural state.


An oversimplified representation of a group of people - usually constructed by exaggerating physical traits or behaviours. Stereotypes are unusually destructive because they are so easily recognised or memorised by audiences.

Media terminology used

Privileged opposition

Strauss tells us that cultural products don't generate a neutral presentation of binary oppositions - that myths (and by definition the modern media) favour one oppositional force. These privileged oppositions provide the ideological bias of a product.

Femme fatale

A female character archetype - used predominantly in the film noir genre. Femme fatales are dangerous, and usually seductive women, who lead men astray - they demonise female power.

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Media Theory for A Level
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