Media Theory Revision Guide

"...essential for all media students"

All A level theorists covered alongside revision summaries and exam practise exercises.





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Beyonce might provide us with a number of moments that reflect a white power affirming jezebel stereotype, yet the context of further imagery suggests that those representations are deliberately ironic.


Formation, for instance, knowingly references the #blacklivesmatter movement through the ‘stop shooting us' graffiti reference towards the end of the video. The text draws attention to the economic disparities and institutionalised racism of America, yet also provides a stream of tilt-up imagery lit with high-key lighting that celebrates a diverse range of black female, black queer and black male identities. New Orleans isn't just mourned, it's diversity is celebrated.

The text, in this sense, provokes an intersectionalist message - simultaneously critiquing the legacy of black slavery, whilst also celebrating those black identities that mainstream American culture marginalises. In so doing Formation asks an active audience to question the overly sexualised imagery presented at the start of the video and to affirm bell hooks' intersectional political intentions by 'calling out' the effects of white-male privilege.

Jezebel stereotype

A black female stereotype that produces an overly sexualised version of black femininity. Jezebel characters are usually aggressive or predatory representations.

Media terminology used

Institutionalised racism

Racist ideas/behaviours or actions that are embedded so deeply within the ethics or outlooks of an organisation that they are seemingly invisible.


A branch of feminism that links the oppression of women and racial prejudice. Intersectionalists suggest that we live a white dominated patriarchy with all other social groups (women/people of colour/people with disabilities/non-binary genders) oppressed by a society that privileges white masculinity.

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Media Theory for A Level
The Essential Revision Guide